How to identify it at the initial stage and take measures to localize it.
Prediabetes refers to an increase in a person’s blood sugar (or glucose) levels that have not yet reached the signs of type 2 diabetes. If it is detected and diagnosed, it is urgent to start treating it.
It should be noted that early detection of the signs of diabetes in the early stages is the key to almost one hundred percent return of a person to normal life. Also, in order to obtain the most effective individual treatment, it is necessary to contact only a specialized medical specialist – an endocrinologist.
If you are interested in this information, follow the link below.
- What is Prediabetes
- Existing types of diabetes classification
- Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes
- Signs and symptoms of prediabetes
- Causes of prediabetes
- Testing for prediabetes
- Glucose susceptibility test (oral)
- How to cure prediabetes
- Is it possible to control prediabetes
- What foods can you eat for prediabetes
- Which doctor should i contact for diabetes
- How to prevent the risk of prediabetes
What is Prediabetes
Prediabetes occurs when everyone’s blood sugar (glucose) levels are above the normal range but not yet high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Usually, the developmental condition of prediabetes occurs in people who are prone to obesity and lead a sedentary lifestyle. He has no special visible or felt symptoms. A medical diagnosis is made based on the results of taking a blood test. An increase in blood sugar levels occurs due to the emergence of a persistent insulin resistance in the body. It is necessary to start sounding the alarm already in those cases when, when measuring fasting blood sugar, the results reach values in venous blood of 6.1 – 7.0 mmol / l, 5.6 – 6.1 mmol / l.
Existing types of diabetes classification
The process of emergence of persistent signs of diabetes is conventionally divided into three categories:
- Prediabetes is the earliest stage of diabetes. It occurs due to an increase in the amount of glucose in a person’s blood in relation to the norm. When the fasting blood sugar is 100-125 mg / dL. This type is not yet a disease, but it is no longer a valid value.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease that develops as a result of insulin resistance and dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas, characterized by a state of hyperglycemia.
- Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes. An autoimmune disease of the endocrine system. As a result of insufficient production of the hormone insulin, the level of glucose in the blood rises. The onset of type 1 diabetes occurs due to the death of cells in the pancreas. The occurrence of an autoimmune reaction and a hereditary predisposition leads to absolute insulin deficiency.
Signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes
The main signs of type 2 diabetes are a constant desire for fluid intake, frequent urination, and seemingly unreasonable weight loss. For the timely detection of this disease, it is necessary to periodically monitor the blood sugar level. Other symptoms that accompany this disease are listed below:
- Bad breath
- Frequent urination
- Erectile disfunction
- Constant feeling of tiredness
- An irresistible urge to drink
- Bad urine smell
- Sharp deterioration in vision
- Slow healing of wounds and abrasions
- Poor wound healing
- Itching of mucous membranes and skin
Signs and symptoms of prediabetes
Due to the fact that prediabetes does not have any overt symptoms, it is always discovered by accident. Basically, it is detected during medical commissions or during routine blood donation in medical institutions. However, there is a common feature that accompanies almost all patients who are subsequently diagnosed with prediabetes. This is overweight. Very often it is inherited from family members or close relatives. Therefore, all people who meet the above requirements should pay attention to the following additional symptoms:
- Lethargy and extreme fatigue
- Sleepiness, mainly after eating
- Fat deposition in the abdomen
Causes of prediabetes
Excessive consumption of sugar or excessive consumption of carbohydrates, as well as the abundant production of glucose in the liver, leads to prediabetes. The following are the main risk factors that predict the development of prediabetes:
- Low physical activity
- Frequent stress
- History of gestational diabetes
- Excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
- High blood pressure, cardiovascular disease
- High cholesterol
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Eating a lot of genetically modified foods, as well as sugar or soda
Testing for prediabetes
Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed with three blood tests:
- Blood glucose level. Fasting blood sugar should not exceed 100-125 mg / dL.
- Fasting blood sugar. Fasting blood sugar is called serum glucose. It determines the blood sugar level before any meal is taken.
- Glycated hemoglobin level. Glycated hemoglobin or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) shows the average blood glucose level over the past three months. The value of prediabetes corresponds to indicators from 5.7% to 6.4%.
Glucose susceptibility test (oral)
Another way to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes is to perform an oral glucose test. This test measures the change in fasting blood glucose and 2 hours after consuming 75 g of glucose. The table below shows the glucose levels in the form of diabetic laboratory tests in capillary blood.
|Hemoglobin HbA1c||5,6% or less||5,7%-6,4%||6,5% and more|
|Fasting blood sugar, mmol / l||before 5,6||from 5.6 to 6.1||6.1 and more|
|Blood sugar level 2 hours after OGT, mmol / l||less than 7.8||7,8 – 11,1||11,1 and more|
How to cure prediabetes
The early stages of diabetes can be corrected or even returned to normal through a healthy lifestyle. This corresponds to physical education, adherence to a diet with moderate consumption of high-calorie foods, as well as quitting smoking and stress resistance, weight loss.
Is it possible to control prediabetes
Yes. It is possible. It is necessary to take blood tests at least once every three months and regularly see an endocrinologist. It is also necessary to maintain a table with blood sugar measurements after eating various foods. This will allow you to understand which foods (and in what quantities) increase sugar more and which less. It is also important to normalize work and rest. Emotional stress and constant stress are provocateurs for the development of prediabetes and other serious ailments.
What foods can you eat for prediabetes
The best foods to prevent prediabetes include eating vegetables, healthy proteins and fats, and eating gray whole grains (oatmeal, brown rice, buckwheat).
The following foods should be excluded from the daily diet:
- sugar, white flour, white rice, white potatoes
- fried and smoked meats, chips, cookies, carbonated drinks, sweet tea and sweet juices.
A low-carb diet is an excellent option for people prone to diabetes. It helps you control your weight, maintain proper blood glucose levels, and live a normal life. It would be wrong to simply choose foods that are low in carbohydrates and fats and be hungry all the time.
You just need to limit your fat intake.
Choosing quality fats and proteins means choosing real food – natural, not processed. When choosing food, you must adhere to the following list of the use of animal proteins contained in:
- red herbivore meat (beef)
- chicken or turkey meat
- fish and seafood
- pork (lean)
From plant proteins, you need to eat foods such as peas, nuts, lentils and beans.
In the diet of diabetic food, it is necessary to include the meat of those animals that are organically or grass-fed. Otherwise, there is a risk of cardiovascular disease. From vegetarian foods and vegetable fats, the following foods are allowed:
- fish and fish products
- avocado and olive oil
- natural fatty dairy products
- coconut milk and coconut oil
Which doctor should i contact for diabetes
To diagnose and treat prediabetes and diabetes, you must make an appointment with an endocrinologist. In most cases, physicians or pediatricians refer to him (in case of a risk of diseases in children and adolescents) after decoding medical tests or examinations of patients.
How to prevent the risk of prediabetes
To prevent the onset of prediabetes, you need to lead an active and healthy lifestyle. Avoid stress by eating a healthy diet with a low glycemic index. It must be remembered that the sooner you take action to treat prediabetes, the more likely you are to delay or prevent the development of diabetes. According to the results of the studies, with timely access to a doctor and timely completion of the course of treatment, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of diabetes with a probability of at least 59%.
If you notice or have identified signs of prediabetes, contact your endocrinologist immediately!
Elena Ryazantseva – endocrinologist doctor – therapist.