Obesity (from lat. Adipositas. Letters. “Obesity” and obesitas. Letters. “Fullness, obesity, fattening”) is the result of the formation of excessive fat deposits, which can be harmful to health. In adults, obesity corresponds to a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30.
Nowadays, many overweight people treat this problem with great disdain. Calming yourself with words from the famous saying – There should be a lot of good people. In fact, there is nothing funny about it. And this is not only a defect in appearance. The more overweight a person has, the higher the risk of developing a variety of dangerous diseases. The real problem is female, male and the worst is childhood obesity. In this article, I will briefly discuss the many consequences of obesity. You will be able to independently assess and take into account all the risks associated with this problem in order to speed up the decision to change your lifestyle, change your diet or visit an endocrinologist.
The occurrence of diseases caused by being overweight:
- The occurrence of cardiovascular disease
- The sharp development of a depressive state
- Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
- Formation of cataracts, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy and diabetic retinopathy
- High risk of developing diabetes
- Arthritis risk
- Pausing breathing during sleep – the onset of apnea
- Fatty liver
- The occurrence of infertility in women and men
- High risk of developing hypertension
- The emergence and growth of gallstones
- Otitis media and other ear infections
- Ischemic stroke
- Bronchial asthma
- Risk of vascular disease
- The likelihood of caries and periodontal disease
- Development of breast diseases
- Development of pyelonephritis and cystitis
The slide on the left shows the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Being overweight plays a significant role in heart disease. Overweight people are considered a special risk group. But we must not forget that our health is in our hands. And, by following the simple rules of leading an active lifestyle and controlling a balanced diet, we can maintain our weight within acceptable limits.
The occurrence of cardiovascular disease
Excess body weight in the body primarily affects the work of the entire cardiovascular system. There is not only fat in the subcutaneous layers, which makes a person look fat, but also internal – visceral. The second type of fat covers the outside of the walls of the internal organs. As a result, a sharp contraction of the diaphragm occurs and, as a result, there is an additional load on the heart.
Obesity is the root cause of the following diseases:
- all types of arrhythmias
- myocardial infarction
- regular heart pain
- atherosclerosis and vascular thrombosis
The sharp development of a depressive state
Depressive states are frequent companions of overweight. An obese person falls into a vicious circle. Extra pounds give rise to a feeling of inferiority in him, which he wants to “seize”. And with overeating, the feeling of depression and one’s own powerlessness increases.
ATTENTION: Due to the violation of protein metabolism, the body does not receive enough amino acid tryptophan from which the hormone “happiness” serotonin is produced.
Therefore, it is necessary to take a protein cocktail to restore protein metabolism – protein, B vitamins, minerals (multivitamins) and Omega-3 fatty acids.
And experts recommend full people to contact not only a nutritionist, but also a psychologist.
Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
Excess body fat increases your risk of developing dementia by almost 80%. Alzheimer’s is sometimes called senile marasmus, although this is not entirely true. As a result of this disease, there is a gradual death of brain cells. Further, the person falls into dementia, that is, into the state in which the speed of mental work decreases.
ATTENTION: High insulin levels, poor absorption of nutrients in the intestine provoke the onset of inflammatory processes in the vessels of the brain. That helps to reduce blood flow to the brain and the development of the course of this disease.
Formation of cataracts, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy and diabetic retinopathy
The ailments listed above, according to studies, occur much more often in people whose body mass index exceeds the norm. Excess weight is already affecting eye health, and obesity is becoming a fairly common cause of visual impairment and eye diseases.
Poor vascular condition, inflammation due to excess insulin in the vessels of the organs of vision leads to the occurrence of these diseases.
High risk of developing diabetes
Currently, diabetes mellitus is a huge problem that spreads across all countries and continents on our planet. The prerequisites for this are the deterioration of people’s lifestyle and an irresponsible attitude to their diet and an active lifestyle.
ATTENTION: Continuous abuse of food leads to an increase in the release of insulin into the blood. Because the more food enters the body at a time, the weaker the body feels the effect of insulin.
Insulin tries to neutralize the excessive amount of carbohydrates and lipids that a person consumes. Then the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus begins. Obesity is now the most common cause of diabetes. If you are overweight, try to get rid of it as soon as possible through low-carb diets and exercise.
ATTENTION: Excess weight is a kind of ballast, which puts pressure on the musculoskeletal system and increases the load on the joints. Therefore, cartilage tissue breaks down faster than in people of normal weight.
That is why arthritis develops very often with obesity.
Pausing breathing during sleep – the onset of apnea
Fat cells, obesity and weight gain affect all parts of the body, including the neck. As a result, she gets fat. This causes the airways to narrow. Because of this disorder, overweight people experience interruption in breathing and shortness of breath during sleep.
ATTENTION: You can independently control the likelihood of apnea in yourself or others. This disease occurs when the thickness of a woman’s neck reaches (or exceeds) 40.64 cm (16 inches), and a man’s – 43.18 cm (or 17 inches).
When overeating or abusing fatty foods, the liver suffers faster than other organs. Therefore, obesity of the liver or fatty hepatosis occurs. After all, it is the liver that is the filter of fat in the human body. Obesity of the liver or fatty liver disease increases the risk of developing diabetes by 5 times.
The occurrence of infertility in women and men
Excess fat is the cause of numerous diseases of the reproductive system for both men and women. Due to the action of fat in the body in women, the menstrual cycle shifts. Men, in turn, suffer from decreased levels of male sex hormones. Both sexes tend to have decreased libido. The most serious consequence of excess weight in the genital area is the development of male and female infertility.
To measure the risk zone for infertility, doctors use a measurement such as waist size. It includes men with a waist over 92-94 cm and women with a waist over 88 cm.
ATTENTION: Obesity changes a person’s appearance, making them look like the opposite sex. In women, there is an increase in body hair, and in men, the growth of the breasts and the appearance of rounded hips.
High risk of developing hypertension
Obesity with hypertension is one of the main causes of the development of the disease. With every extra kilogram of body weight, the pressure in the circulatory system rises.
ATTENTION: If a person becomes overweight, then this excess mass produces additional pressure on the vessels and other internal organs. As a result, vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure occur. This negatively affects the functioning of the entire cardiovascular system.
The emergence and growth of gallstones
The formation and growth of stones in the gallbladder is due to malnutrition, in which there is a violation of the composition of bile and, as a result, a decrease in ducts and compression by fat. A sedentary lifestyle makes it difficult for her to outflow. As a result, bile stagnation occurs, which leads to a disruption in the flow of bile into the intestinal lumen and difficulty in digesting fats.
In addition, excess weight, which accumulates in the abdomen, contributes to the formation of gallstones. It has been proven that overweight children are 6 times more likely to develop stones than teens with a normal body mass index.
Otitis media and other ear infections
People who are prone to being overweight are most vulnerable to throat and nose infections. Human ears and throat are a single communicating system. Its main element is the pharynx. This is a wide canal for transporting food. The pharynx is connected to the ears using the Eustachian tube. This balances the air pressure on the eardrum. Therefore, if it enters the human body, infections can move freely to the hearing organs.
The following are the most likely causes of hearing problems:
- infections (ingestion of bacteria or viruses. mainly due to another illness: colds, flu or allergies)
- genetic and hereditary diseases
- injuries associated with external influences (from a loud sound, the ingress of a foreign object, the occurrence of a head injury or due to improper cleaning of hearing organs from wax)
- developmental anomaly
ATTENTION: Obesity for a child’s body is even more dangerous, because at an early age, the growth of all organs also develops under the pressure of fat on the body. Therefore, these children very often develop otitis media or otitis media.
Stroke is a disease in which the blood supply to an area of the brain is disrupted. As a result, part of the brain does not receive enough oxygen and other nutrients. This leads to the death of brain cells or to their partial damage. Stroke is a very dangerous disease and its urgent treatment is necessary, because the earlier treatment starts, the less brain damage will be. Doctors have identified a link between being overweight and the likelihood of this disease. Obesity disrupts the cardiovascular system, causes hypertension and increases cholesterol in the body.
ATTENTION: Cholesterol plaques in blood vessels resulting from an excess of fat in the body, getting into the vessels of the brain, can cause ischemic stroke.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. One of the many reasons for the development of asthma is overweight, in the event of which the diaphragm under the influence of abdominal fat shifts to the chest region. This leads to a decrease in the volume of the lungs and the volume of incoming air. The lower part of the lungs is in an unfolded state. When taking medications for bronchial asthma, excess weight in the body reduces the effectiveness of these drugs. This becomes a big obstacle in the treatment and prevention of this disease.
ATTENTION: Bronchial asthma mainly occurs in people who lead a sedentary lifestyle. Fear of an attack of suffocation limits physical activity and the ability to rest away from civilization or in nature. The consequence of this is a set of extra pounds turning into obesity.
Risk of vascular disease
Under the influence of internal fat, the heart is forced to contract much more often than usual. Scientists have proven that an increase in body weight of 35-40 kg and more, the pulse rate increases by 50% of the norm. Such abrupt changes in the number of contractions of the heart muscle have a negative effect on the entire cardiovascular system of the body. They are a direct cause of heart and vascular diseases: aortic valve stenosis, thrombosis and deep vein atherosclerosis.
ATTENTION: Fat deposition occurs not only in the internal organs, but also in the vessels of the myocardium.
The likelihood of caries and periodontal disease
Obesity is a cause of poor nutrition and, as a result, an increase in the frequency and amount of food intake. This leads to increased stress on the tooth enamel. There is a risk of damage to it and the ingress of bacteria and the occurrence of caries and periodontal disease. We must not forget such side inconveniences as the lack of extra-wide chairs in dental offices.
ATTENTION: The main reason for the development of caries in people prone to obesity is a violation of the acid-base balance, lack of vitamins and uncontrolled nutrition.
Development of breast diseases
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common female cancer in the world. According to the studies conducted, more than 20% of breast cancer cases in postmenopausal women are associated with obesity. In women who are overweight, it is more difficult to carry out both treatment and diagnosis of the disease. Obesity not only contributes to the formation of breast cancer, but also prevents the treatment of this disease. The larger the breast, the more difficult it is to search for the focus of the disease, as well as to carry out an operation to remove it.
ATTENTION: It is worth remembering that being overweight stimulates the increased production of the hormone estrogen. Because of this, the production of another hormone, liptin, is increased, which promotes the growth and growth of cancer cells.
Development of pyelonephritis and cystitis
Treatment of cystitis, pyelonephritis and other diseases of the genitourinary system is most effective if the patient follows a special diet aimed at changing the properties of urine and stopping the inflammatory process. †
CAUTION: A moderate and nutritious diet helps to strengthen and repair mucosal damage and increase the immune processes in the body. It is necessary to pay special attention to the consumption of high-calorie foods.
IMPORTANT: This article is posted for informational purposes only and is not a basis for self-diagnosis. We remind you that it is necessary to solve the problem of obesity in a comprehensive manner, taking into account an individual approach to each patient. For the treatment of obesity and obesity symptoms. it is necessary to contact a medical institution to see an endocrinologist.
Elena Ryazantseva – is a physician-endocrinologist of the highest medical category.