The secret of fireballs on the Dyatlov pass

Hypotheses
Continuation of the article about the death of Igor Dyatlov's group

Continuation of the article about the death of Igor Dyatlov’s group. Excerpts from an article by S. Bogomolov published in the Uralsky Rabochy newspaper in July 1990.

Lost group

In January 1959, a group of UPI tourists, consisting of 10 people, went on a hike in the Northern Urals. The declared route is III (at that time of the highest) category of difficulty. The route is rather difficult, but in general it is usual for the Northern Urals. Nowadays, every year many groups climb much more difficult routes. The area of ​​the hike is a huge deserted area covered with taiga. There are many windbreaks in the taiga, deep snow in winter, frost down to -40 ° (sometimes it can be up to -50 °). Mountains, treeless ridges. The slopes are mostly gentle, the presence of large flat snow fields at the top is characteristic. In winter, the prevailing wind direction is from west to east. The constantly blowing wind compacts the snow on the ridges or blows it down. The nearest settlement to the scene of the incident is the colony-settlement of Ushma. Hunting huts are occasionally found in the forest. Mansi hunters still live in the area. It is not easy to find this place on the map. Mount Otorten is located practically in the northernmost point of the Sverdlovsk region, where the borders of the Sverdlovsk region, the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug meet. Igor Dyatlov’s group was sufficiently prepared for the campaign. Everyone who knew the guys testifies to this. Before that, they were in the north several times. Dyatlov himself is described as an experienced, strong-willed, resourceful leader. Among the shortcomings – a very tough authoritarian leadership, but since he really was the most experienced in the group, this could be normal. In an extreme situation, the group most likely obeyed the order, even if someone had doubts about the need, for example, to leave the tent. This could be done purely automatically, since in any extreme conditions on a camping trip, it is the collective actions of the group that are the guarantee of security. They had such a campaign plan. Leave some of the things and products in the storage and go light to Otorten, return and then go south. Quite feasible. They went to the upper reaches of the Auspiya River in the evening and, as they were behind the schedule of the route, they tried to climb the ridge between the peaks “1079” and “880” immediately and cross it, but due to bad weather they did not succeed. They spent the night in the upper reaches of the Auspiya, in the morning they began to make a storage shed (it was necessary to protect food from animals!), Were carried until 15.00 and only then went upstairs. In principle, they could go down into the forest in the valley of the Lozva River, however, they spent the night above the forest (it was about 1.5 km away), obviously, so as not to waste time climbing the ridge in the morning (and the movement to Otorten is optimal along a treeless ridge, rather than below, in the forest, where there is deep snow). This decision confirms that the group was strong, because spending the night above the border of the forest is quite difficult and cold. The group set up the tent on lying skis (for thermal insulation, so that the snow does not melt and does not wet the bottom of the tent, blankets). Quite competently. And then something happened that made them urgently panicky run out of the tent. When did it happen – in the evening, at night or in the morning? The examination later established that the meal was taken 6-8 hours before the moment of death. It could be both lunch and dinner. Rather, dinner, since people have undressed, they have already gone to bed.

Excerpts from the protocol on the termination of the case

Further, perhaps, it is necessary to turn to the dry language of the protocol, or rather, to the resolution on the termination of the case: “… Having returned on January 31, 1959 … to the valley of the Auspiya river and knowing about the difficult conditions of the relief of the height” 1079 “, where the ascent was supposed Dyatlov, as the leader of the group, made a gross mistake, expressed in the fact that the group began the ascent on 02/01/1959 only at 15:00. , the tourists took 500-600 m to the left and instead of the pass formed by the peaks “1079” and “880”, they went to the eastern slope of the summit “1079”. This was Dyatlov’s second mistake. conditions of strong wind, which is common in this area, and low temperatures of about 25-30 ° C, Dyatlov found himself in a disadvantageous overnight conditions and decided to pitch a tent on the slope of the summit “1079”, so that the next morning, without losing altitude , go to Mount Otorten, which was about 10 km in a straight line. In one of the cameras there is a photograph (taken by the last), which shows the moment of excavation of snow to set up a tent. Considering that this frame was taken with a shutter speed of 1/25 sec. at an aperture of 5.6 at a film sensitivity of 65 Units. GOST, and also taking into account the density of the frame, we can assume that the installation of the tent began at about 5 pm on 1.02.59. A similar picture was taken with another device. After this time, no recordings or photographs were found. According to the protocol of the route commission, the head of the group Igor Dyatlov on 12.02.59 was supposed to telegraph the UPI sports club and the committee of physical education (comrade Ufimtsev) about his arrival in the village of Vizhay. Since the deadline – 02/12/59 passed, and no information was received from the group, the tourists who knew Dyatlov closely began to insist on taking measures to search, and on 02/20/1959 the leadership of the institute sent a search group along Dyatlov’s route, and then a few more groups. In the future, soldiers and officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, planes and helicopters of civil and military aviation were sent to search. On February 26, 1959, on the eastern slope of the “1079” peak, the group’s tent was discovered with all the equipment and food in it. The tent and everything that was in it was well preserved. Inspection of the tent showed that it was set up correctly and provided accommodation for tourists. The tent contains 2 blankets, backpacks, storm jackets and trousers. The rest of the blankets were crumpled and frozen. Several pieces of skin from a loin were found on the blanket. The location and presence of objects in the tent (almost all shoes, all outerwear, personal belongings and diaries) testified that the tent was suddenly abandoned by all the tourists at the same time, and, as it was established in the subsequent forensic examination, the leeward side of the tent, where the tourists were located with their heads , turned out to be cut from the inside in two places, in areas that provide a free exit for a person through these cuts. Below the tent, for up to 500 meters, traces of people walking from the tent into the valley and into the forest have been preserved in the snow. The tracks are well preserved, and there were 8-9 pairs of them. Inspection of the tracks showed that some of them were left with an almost bare foot (for example, in one cotton sock), others had a typical display of a felt boot, a foot shod in a soft sock, etc. The tracks of the tracks were located close to one another, converged and again diverged not far from one another. Closer to the border of the forest, the tracks disappeared – they turned out to be covered with snow. Neither in the tent, nor near it were found signs of a struggle or the presence of other people. 02/26/59. 1500 meters from the tent, at the border of the forest, the remains of a fire were found, and near it the corpses of Doroshenko and Krivonischenko, stripped to their underwear, were found. In 300 meters from the fire, in the direction of the tent, the body of Dyatlov was found, another 180 meters from him was the body of Slobodin, and 150 meters from Slobodin — the body of Kolmogorova. The last three corpses are located in a straight line from the fire to the tent. Dyatlov was lying on his back, his head towards the tent, his hand clasped the trunk of a small birch. Slobodin and Kolmogorova were lying face down, their posture indicated that they were crawling towards the tent. In the pockets of Kolmogorova, Dyatlov and Slobodin, money and personal belongings (fountain pens, pencils, etc.) were found. On the left hand of Slobodin, thrown to the side, a watch was found that showed 8 hours 45 minutes. Dyatlov’s clock showed 5 hours 31 minutes. The forensic medical examination established that Dyatlov, Doroshenko, Krivonischenko and Kolmogorova died from the effects of low temperature (froze to death), none of them had any bodily injuries, apart from minor scratches and abrasions. Slobodin had a skull fracture 6 cm long, which expanded to 0.1 cm, but Slobodin died from cooling. May 4, 1959 75 meters from the fire, towards the valley of the fourth tributary of the river. Lozvy, i.e. The bodies of Dubinina, Zolotarev, Thibeaux-Brignolle and Kolevatov were found perpendicular to the path of tourists from the tent under a layer of snow of 4-4.5 meters. Clothes of Krivonischenko and Doroshenko – trousers, sweaters – were found on the corpses, as well as a few meters away. All clothes have traces of even cuts, since they were already removed from the corpses of Doroshenko and Krivonischenko. The deceased Thibault-Brignoles and Zolotarev were found well-dressed, Dubinina was worse dressed – her jacket made of faux fur and a hat were on Zolotarev, Dubinina’s bare leg was wrapped in Krivonischenko’s woolen trousers. A knife of Krivonischenko was found near the corpses, with which young fir trees were cut off by the fire. Two clocks were found on Thibault’s hand – one of them shows 8 hours 14 minutes, the second – 8 hours 39 minutes. A forensic autopsy of the corpses established that Kolevatov’s death came from the effects of low temperature (froze to death). Kolevatov has no bodily harm. The deaths of Dubinina, Thibault-Brignoles and Zolotarev resulted from multiple injuries. Dubinina has a symmetrical fracture of the ribs: on the right 2,3,4,5 and on the left 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. In addition, extensive hemorrhage in the heart. Thibault-Brignoles has extensive hemorrhage in the right temporal muscle, respectively, a depressed fracture of the skull bones measuring 3 – 7 cm, with a bone defect of 3×2 cm.Zolotarev has a fracture of the ribs on the right 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 along the peri-thoracic and midclavicular lines , which led to his death. The investigation did not establish the presence on February 1 and 2, 1959 in the area of ​​the “1079” height of other people, except for the group of tourists from Dyatlov. It was also established that the population of the Mansi people, living 80-100 km from this place, treats Russians friendly, provides tourists with an overnight stay, helps them, etc. The place where the group died is considered unsuitable for hunting by the Mansi in winter. and reindeer husbandry. Taking into account the absence of external bodily injuries and signs of struggle on the corpses, the presence of all the values ​​of the group, and also taking into account the conclusion of the forensic medical examination about the causes of death of tourists, it should be considered that the cause of the death of tourists was a spontaneous force, which the tourists were not able to overcome. Having written off everything on this spontaneous force, they decided to stop the criminal case on the death of a group of tourists.

From the memoirs of the correspondent G. Grigoriev

“In February 1959, upon arrival in Ivdel, I learned that a group of tourists I. Dyatlov from UPI did not return from the mountains. The search began with me. More than 40 tourists-skiers were dropped by helicopters from the Ivdel airfield to the area of ​​Mount Otorten, most of them were students. Even earlier, a group of Mansi departed there from the village of Suevatpaul on reindeer sledges with a walkie-talkie and a radio operator. The search began on February 21, and five days later a terrible news came from the mountains. A group of tourists Slobtsova and Kurikov on the mountainside. “1079” found a tent covered with snow. Having dug it out, they saw it cut with a knife. In it – outerwear, boots, backpacks, skis of I. Dyatlov’s group. And where are the tourists? the Mansi mountain, and they killed them, hiding the corpses. The next day they reported that the bodies of G. Krivonischenko, Y. Doroshenko, I. Dyatlov were found. Members of the commission to investigate the death of tourists flew into the mountains. They said and that there are no traces of violent death. Later, the bodies of Z. Kolmogorova and R. Slobodin were found. The medical expert concluded that they died of hypothermia. Why? And other rumors spread around Ivdel. As if a new atomic weapon was being tested in the Northern Urals, and the students died from radiation. Telegrams with inquiries were sent to Moscow – is that so? At the disposal of the commissions were reels of filmed film, diaries of the victims. All this and much more indicated that there was no radiation there. In addition, tourists were killed just 50 km from the village of Suevatpaul. It remained to find four. Here, for the penultimate time, the group of I. Dyatlov also set up their tent. From here, hiding some of the things and products in a storage shed, on February 1, 1959, she went to the foot of Otorten. I had to climb the pass, cross it, go down to the valley of the Lozva River, put up a tent there and spend the night. Experienced tourists, who more than once went to the mountains with I. Dyatlov, took part in the search, but they spoke unflatteringly about him: “He is a good executive friend when he goes as a private. If he leads a group, commands and does not consult with anyone.” This coincided, by the way, with the entries in Z. Kolmogorova’s diary. We climbed the gentle pass at dusk and lost our route. From the north we turned to the north-west, and the gentle mountain “1079” was taken for the continuation of the pass, they began to climb it. We did not reach 300 meters of its blunt summit, we were exhausted, put up a tent in the dark and spent the night. {Later on this place stood prosecutors, investigators, masters of sports in mountaineering, and everyone said that putting up a tent on the mountain was a gross mistake. With a strong wind, a snowfall, this can result in death. And the winds here, in the pipe between the mountain “1079” meters and Otorten, in winter are such that, as the Mansi say, even animals do not come here}. Why did they leave the tent in a hurry? The Saviors firmly stated that there was only one reason: a hurricane wind that played out at night. He hummed, tore up an old tent and woke up the tourists. When they woke up, they were afraid that they might find themselves under an avalanche, and this often happens in the mountains. A. Gubin in his article in “Uralsky Rabochiy” dated January 21, 1990 writes that tourists were frightened by the stage of the launch vehicle burning in the sky. I doubt it. And that’s why. He writes that there are 10 holes in the tent with a diameter of up to three centimeters: this is probably from the falling of fragments of the carrier’s burning stage on the tent. I saw the tent when it was taken from the mountains to Ivdel. There, at the airfield, they set her up and saw: if the holes were from fragments, then they had to hit the tent not only from above, but also from all four sides. In addition, if 10 fragments pierced the thick fabric of the tent, they would certainly seriously injure the tourists. But that did not happen. The tent was old and repaired. It was also repaired during the last campaign, about which Z. Kolmogorova wrote in her diary on January 28. From 1 to 28 February, the tent was on the mountain, in the wind, and it was all disheveled. The stitching threads parted, and the holes became even larger. The tent was also damaged when it was dug out of the snow. Like everyone who took part in the search, I have my own version of what happened: in panic, jumping out of the tent, tourists rushed from the mountain down to its foot. In the dark and with a hurricane wind, they fell more than once, hitting stones, of which there are many on the slope. The winds blew the snow around them so that the stones stand as if in bowls of compressed icy snow. During the search, even a bloodhound dog fell into one of these bowls, hit hard and limped. In the forest, one and a half kilometers from the tent, the tourists came to their senses, and here they began a courageous fight with death. Tourists found themselves in a difficult stalemate. After all, they were in tights, sweaters, woolen socks, light knitted hats, some even without them. This is with a hurricane wind and 20-degree frost – this weather was then recorded by forecasters. By the way, tourists came running almost to the place where they were supposed to come yesterday. But the onset of darkness, mistakes took them up the mountain and destroyed them. The fact that even here, in the forest, there was a strong wind is evidenced by such facts. The fire was kindled and saved from the wind by taking off a light jacket. We found her, scorched by the flame, near the fire. Two large boughs, cut high on a cedar, were thrown about ten meters from the tree by the wind, and they were never found at night. Several tops of low pines and something else were thrown into the fire. All this suggests that at the beginning all or almost all tourists fought with death by the fire. Making sure that the fire would not save, I. Dyatlov, Z. Kolmogorova and R. Slobodin rushed back up the mountain to meet the hurricane, into the tent – for clothes. The four went deeper into the forest, where the wind is quieter and there is more firewood. Maybe they rushed to look for the Mansi chum? In winter, Mansi hunters were occasionally there. The chum is indicated on topographic maps, and it always contains not only a stove, firewood, matches, but also food. Z. Kolmogorova was dressed the best. She was wearing a ski suit, a cowboy shirt, woolen socks with an insole, and two hats on her head. She apparently wore something during the panic in the tent as well. Therefore, returning to the tent, I crawled closer to it than anyone else. A courageous girl froze to death three hundred meters from the tent. Her body was discovered by a dog under a thin layer of snow compressed by the wind. Zina froze in the position in which she crawled up the mountain with a hurricane headwind on her bellies. I. Dyatlov, protecting his open head from the wind with his hand, froze five hundred meters from the tent. On the way to it, R. Slobodin also died. G. Krivonischenko and Y. Doroshenko who remained at the fire tried their best to keep it from going out. The guys froze, lying by the fire. Their bodies, half covered with snow, were found first. A. Kolevatov, L. Dubinina, N. Thibault-Brignolle, A. Zolotarev, apparently numb from the cold, sheltered from the wind under the high bank of the river and also froze. They were so covered with snow that the bodies were found only at the beginning of May, when the snow began to melt.

From the memoirs of N. Tokarev, a participant in the search

A somewhat different picture is drawn by another participant in the search – N. Tokarev. He writes: “We looked for them like this. We scattered a chain two meters apart and pierced the snow with probes. We started from the place where their tracks ended, that is, 150 meters from the tent. They were well preserved. On the first day I noticed to the broken off little Christmas trees at the edge of the forest, where the last four were later discovered. He told the student leader Kikoin about this, but he brushed it off. But the broken branches were not in place – they ended up in a hole dug in the snow, where there were four I think it could have happened like this. At night one of the tourists came out of the tent and saw something that horrified him. He raised the alarm and everyone left the tent, ran down. One of them, R. Slobodin, fell and was injured. Having fled to the valley, they began to think about what to do. And they decided, apparently, as follows: three go to the tent for warm clothes, the rest are making a fire and waiting on the spot. I think they died from suffocation, and did not freeze. the snow on Kolmogorova’s face was bloody, it was bleeding probably the nose or throat. Further, the guys did not manage to light a fire – the birch bark and twigs were only charred. Lack of oxygen, I think. It turns out that three died on the way to the tent, two – by the unburned fire, and four dug a hole, broke branches from the Christmas trees, lined the bottom of the hole and went down into it. After some time, one was sent to find out – what happened to the fire? He came to the fire and found his comrades dead. To warm the rest, he took their clothes and went back. But the clothes of the comrades did not save these four any more … “

The deaths of Dubinina, Thibault-Brignoles and Zolotarev resulted from multiple injuries. It seems that only two people knew about this circumstance – the criminal prosecutor A. Ivanov and the forensic expert B. Vozrozhdenny. True, many participants in the search and eyewitnesses recalled the unnatural skin color of the victims. They even called the color orange. But few people paid attention to this circumstance – snow, sun, and they could not find the guys for a long time … And even more so, no one knew about the physical and technical examination carried out later at the insistence of L. Ivanov.

When studying criminal case No. 659, we, of course, drew attention to the fact that the table of contents says that there is a physical and technical examination, but it is not in the case itself, but there is a laconic inscription in the corner of sheet No. 369: “Case sheets 370-379, as irrelevant to the case, seized and stored in a special sector of the prosecutor’s office. 10.07.59. Ivanov. ” But from the special sector, these nine leaves had already migrated into an envelope glued to a cardboard cover, where they were kept along with a dozen yellowed photographs. Why was the examination withdrawn and what made the investigator conduct it at all? Part of the answer is given by the content of the examination itself.

Where did the radiation come from

“Samples of solid substrates and clothing sent to the radiological laboratory of the Sverdlovsk City SES … were examined for the content of radioactive substances. Preliminary dosimetric measurements of clothing were carried out, in which an increase in the natural background was revealed. The maximum load was established in certain areas of clothing: 1. Sweater brown. – 9900 strokes / min. From 150 sq. Cm. (After flushing – 5200.) 2. Bottom part of the trousers – 5000 strokes / min. From 150 sq. Cm. (After flushing – 2600) 3. Sweater belt – 5600 rpm from 150 sq. cm (After washing – 2600) Experimental washing of clothes showed that pollution is removed, the percentage of washing varies from 30 percent to 60 percent (it was carried out in cold running water for three hours). the type of radiation, it was found that the activity takes place due to beta particles.Alpha and gamma particles were not detected.Lack of appropriate instruments and conditions in the laboratory did not allow radiochemical analysis from to determine the chemical structure of the emitter and the energy of its radiation “. The experts examined the clothes and fabrics of Kolevatov, Zolotarev, Thibault-Brignolle and Dubinina. The expert’s conclusions: “1. The investigated solid biosubstrates contain radioactive substances within the natural content due to potassium-40. 2. The investigated individual samples of clothing contain a slightly overestimated amount of radioactive substance, which is beta radiation. 3. The detected radioactive substances are washed off when the samples are washed, that is, they are caused not by the neutron flux and induced radioactivity, but by radioactive contamination by beta radiation. The chief radiologist of the city of Levashev. The studies were carried out from May 18 to May 25, 1959. ” Needless to say, the examination carried out revealed a very unexpected and alarming fact. But for me, for example, until some time far from the problems of radiology (they, however, unceremoniously invade our life – but somehow I didn’t have to …), it is completely incomprehensible: beta radiation is worse than alpha or gamma radiation ? Is 9900 dpm on a sweater a lot or a little? Should a person pay attention to this or is it too late? The investigator, apparently, was also interested in these questions. In addition, he tried to grasp the connection between radioactivity and personal injury of the last four. Hence the additional questioning of the expert in the case: “Question: can there be an increased contamination of clothes with radioactive substances under normal conditions, without being in a radioactively contaminated zone or place? Answer: it should not be perfect. Question: what is the degree of contamination of the objects you investigated? : at the time of investigation, the brown sweater had 9900 decays per minute of beta particles per 150 sq. cm, and after washing for three hours in cold water gave 5200 decays per minute. According to the existing sanitary rules, the contamination from such an area should not exceed 5000 decays per minute, and after washing, there should be only a natural background. The given norm is for those working with radioactive substances (for the population it is much lower – S. B.). Question: can it be considered that these clothes are contaminated with radioactive dust? Answer: yes, clothing is contaminated or radioactive dust dropped from the atmosphere, or this clothing has been contaminated when working with radioactive still, or upon contact. It exceeds existing norms. Question: What could have been the degree of contamination, if we take into account that before the study you had them in running water for about 15 days? Answer: it can be assumed that the contamination of individual parts of the clothes was many times greater, but it must be borne in mind that the clothes could be washed unevenly … “Where did the radioactive dust on the clothes of four tourists come from? There is no answer to this question in the materials of the case. that tests of new military equipment with nuclear ammunition are involved here. Let us recall that ten years ago an atomic bomb was created in the USSR. A cold war is going on and there is an increased atomic armament on both sides. In such conditions, such tests are quite acceptable. However, judging by According to publications in recent years, such work was carried out in the south – near Semipalatinsk – and in the north – on Novaya Zemlya. The northern test site, of course, could have been involved in the Ivdel tragedy. By the way, according to the recently published collection “Radiation. Doses, Effects, Risk “, it was in 1958 and early 1959 that the peak of nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere all over the world took place.

Observing the movement of a star with a “tail”

… On February 17, at 6 hours 50 minutes, an extraordinary phenomenon appeared in the sky – the movement of a star with a tail, the tail looked like dense cirrus clouds. Then this star freed itself from its tail, became brighter than the stars and flew away, began to swell gradually, a large ball enveloped in haze formed. Then a star lit up inside this ball, from which at first a small ball was formed, not so bright. The large ball gradually began to descend, became like a blurry spot. At 7.05 he disappeared altogether. Moved from south to northeast.

The secret of fireballs on the Dyatlov pass

The report from the weather station also noted this event: “On February 17, 1959, at 6.40 am, while on duty, I watched a bright white ball appear from the south side, at times enveloped in fog, inside – a bright dot-star. , was visible for 8-10 minutes. Serviceman A. Savkin “. Novikov, Avenburg, Malik told the investigator about the same ball. Another such ball was seen on March 31 of the same year, but something similar was seen on the night of the death of the guys, that is, from February 1 to February 2 – student tourists of the Geological Faculty of the Pedagogical Institute, there is in the case of G. Atamanaki’s testimony about a luminous ball over Otorten on February 1 … Along with the testimony of the witness, the investigator also filed a clipping from “Tagil Worker” about all the same white balls to the case. Well, it was not in vain that he collected this data, conducted examinations? However, in the final document, which has already been cited, these searches did not find any reflection. Moreover, an interesting detail emerged. In the materials of the case, either through an oversight, or in accordance with the orders of that time, the first, apparently, version of the decision to dismiss the case turned out to be filed. It contained a paragraph on the presence of radioactive contamination of the clothes of tourists and that none of them was associated with radioactive substances at work or study. Date – May 28, but no signatures, the entire resolution, sheet by sheet, crossed out crosswise with a blue pencil. In the final decision, as we could already see, there is silence about this, as well as about fireballs.

Tourists killed by UFO

From the memoirs of S. Lukin, whose signature is under the decision to terminate the case. In his opinion, the tourists were killed by a UFO.

The secret of fireballs on the Dyatlov pass

The file contains a number of testimonies about the luminous balls and a note about them from the “Tagil Worker”. I don’t presume to assert what kind of balls – whether some kind of weapon, aliens or guests from the distant future, but I’m sure that this is directly related to the death of the guys. – But how do you imagine it? Pilots, geologists, who have traveled and flew away from these lands, unanimously repeat: there are no traces of an explosion near Otorten and the surrounding area. – And it was not in the usual sense for us – like the explosion of a shell, a bomb. It was different, as if the balloon had burst. The thing is. that at the edge of the forest, where the tourists so hastily fled from the tent, the branches of the trees were, as it were, scorched. Not burnt, not broken, but scorched. I guess it happened like this. The guys had dinner and went to bed. One of them came out of natural necessity (there were footprints) and saw something that made everyone leave the tent and run downstairs. I think it was a glowing ball. And he did overtake them, or it happened by chance, at the edge of the forest. Explosion! Three are seriously injured. The case must contain the testimony of the Vozrozhdenny forensic expert. In his opinion, it was something like a strong shock wave or blow, like in a car accident. Well, then … The struggle for survival began. You know, thirty years have passed, I have seen all kinds of cases in my life as a prosecutor, but I cannot forget this story. I have never met a more vivid manifestation of courage, such a fierce struggle for the life of my own and my comrades. But strength aches the strength … I do not remember the names, unfortunately. Two who were found under the cedar … They tried to light a fire, climbed the cedar for the twigs, and there were scraps of their skin and muscles on its bark … Their comrade, who had fallen behind due to illness, helped a lot. Yudin, it seems. He knew who was wearing what and helped establish who was wearing what. All the clothes were messed up. And they undressed the dead in order to save the living. I am guilty, very guilty before the children’s relatives – I didn’t allow them to see their bodies. Well, yes, and it would not be easy for them to endure. The only exception was made for Lyuda Dubinina’s father – he opened the lid of the coffin to show it. that the daughter is dressed properly. He lost consciousness. I insisted and carefully made sure that the children were dressed as it should be according to Christian tradition. My only excuse is that I did not fulfill my will. The first secretary then was Kirilenko, but he did not interfere in the matter, but Estokin, the second secretary, “supervised” me. Several times during the investigation, he summoned me to the regional committee. I listened to reports, gave instructions. Game, of course, by today’s standards. But now it is easy to judge, but then … I did not even have doubts about the legitimacy of his intervention. then everything was done like that. They said this with the meaning: “You are a communist!” So the investigation was terminated. I did not work out the version of the luminous balls. I only managed to carry out a physical and technical examination. I even drove some kind of device to its place – a large wooden box. – Geiger counter? – Yes, it looks like that. He called me there such a shot … The radiation was there, no doubt about it. But where and what, did not get to the bottom, did not give. – Lev Nikitich, and you did not send inquiries – to the military. scientists? – What are you, what requests at that time … but with such a situation around the case. No, he didn’t send … – And who and why classified the case? – I myself and classified, I myself withdrew the examination. it was said – “remove all unnecessary …” The meeting with the investigator L. Ivanov clarified a lot, of course. For example, it became clear why the investigation was so quick and strange. But one circumstance still remains a mystery – where did the radiation come from on the clothes of the three?

A messenger from New Earth?

Generally speaking, several options are possible. First, was the entire area contaminated there? Remember, the Geiger counter literally squealed at Ivanov’s. Unfortunately, only the clothes of three were examined. It is not excluded that she “shone” on others. The appearance of radioactivity in these remote regions, by the way, is quite likely. As it is already known, the nuclear test site on Novaya Zemlya has existed since 1954, and from Otorten to Novaya Zemlya it is somewhere about one and a half thousand kilometers. A trifle for a radioactive cloud. Chernobyl, for example, having walked through Eastern Europe, returned to the country and even caught the Urals by the edge. Kyshtym was weaker, but it was enough for a corridor through three regions – Chelyabinsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen. this version of the appearance of radioactivity is one of the most probable, according to radiologists at the regional sanitary and epidemiological station V. Zabolotskikh and V. Semenov. They carefully read the examination data and shared the following considerations:

  1. Most likely, this is from Novaya Zemlya. Then it is easy to check, it is enough to take samples of land, water, maybe take cuts from trees. Surely traces remain. but there has never been any data on the presence of radiation in these parts. And who collected them then, and later?
  2. It is a pity that then, in 1959, it was not possible to establish which isotope was carried on the clothes of tourists. That would clarify a lot. The conclusion says that beta radiation has been detected. But, most likely, there was in place the entire spectrum of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The Geiger counter recorded the presence of radiation as such, and there was nothing to determine its type on the spot. Only in the laboratory was it established that this is beta radiation, which, as a rule, does not exist in its pure form. It is just easier to fix it. Apparently, the source could be isotopes of phosphorus, tritium, strontium. The latter, by the way, is interesting in that it is used in power supplies. There are such strontium power supplies. In those years, they were quite widely used at automatic weather stations. Perhaps somewhere such a battery was damaged or lost, and strontium somehow got into these places. This type of infection is possible, but unlikely. The power of such batteries does not correlate with the dose of clothing contamination. The highest level, let me remind you, is 9,900 decays per minute, a double excess of the sanitary standard for those working with radioactive materials, but the clothes were washed with running water for at least 15 days. Ivanov, by the way, believed that it was even more – he called this figure in the interrogation of the radiologist Levashev approximately. It is difficult to guess what the initial dose was, but it is obvious that it was large.
  3. Another, but unlikely assumption. The fact is that in those years there was a theory that radioactive substances could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. Maybe some failed tests, if not in the Northern Urals, then on the same Novaya Zemlya? 4. The hypothesis of an atomic explosion in the vicinity of Otorten does not stand up to any criticism – people would see and hear the explosion itself, and the traces of it cannot be hidden. Then I asked the radiologists – could the radiation recorded on the clothes have not natural, from isotopes, origin, but artificial, say, from some kind of installation? The radiologists shrugged their shoulders – hardly. Now, if you somehow get a powerful neutron flux … But there seems to be no synchrophasotron anywhere nearby … It is possible, however, a variant of plasma, but in any case, a terrible amount of energy is needed. And with plasma there is still a lot that is not clear. But the most important thing, and the examination says about this, is radioactive contamination on the clothes, and there is no induced radiation, that is, resulting from a powerful neutron flux. The proof is simple – the radioactive dirt was washed out … It was then that I told them about the glowing balls. “Maybe,” they answered without enthusiasm, “but everything looks too” fantastic “. It would be nice to take samples …”

Was there a flash?

It somehow happened that lately I had to meet with several specialists in the field of radiology. Each time I “pumped” the version of the involvement of glowing balls in the death of tourists and radiation on their clothes. The isotopic origin of radioactivity seemed more real to everyone. But the director of the special enterprise for the disposal of radioactive substances “Radon” N. Chemeris prompted a very interesting turn: “Beta radiation, beta radiation. You know, if there was an explosion of something and beta radiation – and strong, then the guys could go blind. Was their skin burned? Did the medical examiner pay attention to their eyes? ” I am discussing this point with radiologists again. Of course, radioactive radiation could hit the eyes – like the whole body, and the dose of such damage would not go unnoticed by experts: medical and radiological. Most likely, the radioactive contamination had nothing to do with the circumstances of their death. A coincidence. But this can be definitively confirmed only after examining samples from this place and the surrounding area. – and could these luminous balls be something like ball lightning that exploded and … – Everything could be. After all, we judge from the position of what we know, we are trying to stick a new phenomenon into the Procrustean bed of existing knowledge and ideas. And they may not be enough. The same ball lightning. After all, we only assume its plasma nature, because this is a lot, but does not explain everything … Indeed, what if they went blind? If not from an atomic explosion, then from a flash of unknown origin? This explains a lot then – why they could not return to the tent, for example. Or light a fire properly. Or why they tried to cut the same branch for the fire in several places. Then many of their senseless actions, which were previously explained by shock, frost, hurricane wind, are understandable. Therefore, a logically reconstructed picture of what had happened for all researchers did not work out in any way. But in the data of the forensic medical examination there is nothing about this. And, apparently, they suffered from the explosion to varying degrees, since Kolmogorova, Slobodin and Dyatlov went to the tent, however, for some reason separately. However, there are still many such unanswered “why” in this story. (Well, for example, why did the bodies of the last four tourists found by the last lie not on the flooring, which was made specially for them, but nearby?) Ivanov’s version is attractive because it gives more or less intelligible answers to the main questions: what scared them, where did the radiation come from? how were the three tourists injured? But let’s face it, and not everything fits in it. I am far from the fashionable idea of ​​the alien origin of this UFO, rather, just a phenomenon unknown to science and researchers. I also contacted one of the most serious scientists involved in UFO phenomena, with a story about a meeting with whom in a newspaper about one strange UFO, this story began, in fact, for me – an employee of the Institute of High Temperature Physics V. Listratov.

He asked for help, to find out through his channels two points: the degree of possible involvement of the military in this tragedy, and, secondly, has it ever happened in his practice that UFOs left a radioactive trail? The answer was negative for both positions. But I still remain a supporter of Ivanov’s version. The fact is that the glowing white or fiery balls that flew at that time and in that place is a reality that has been repeatedly confirmed both in the criminal case and beyond that. So, the geologist Y. Ilyashin who called us said that he had seen such balls in those places more than once in the Northern Urals. They are also called tori. the description of the effect is practically one to one in the stated in the case Another piece of evidence. Several years ago, in the village of Polunochnoye near Ivdel, I had a chance to meet an interesting person – a full member of the Geographical Society of the USSR, a great lover and explorer of nature, O. Shtraukh. For many years he has been observing, and, naturally, I turned to him with a request. And this is what he answered me, citing data from his diaries: “03/31/59. At 4 hours 10 minutes the following phenomenon was observed: from the southwest to the northeast a spherical luminous body passed quite quickly over the village. the full moon, bluish-white in color was surrounded by a large bluish halo. At times this halo flashed brightly, resembling flashes of distant lightning. When the body disappeared over the horizon, the sky in this place was illuminated for several minutes. A similar phenomenon was observed by the inhabitants of Midnight on 17.02.59. 7 hours 10 minutes. In the morning behind the luminous trail there was a trail in the form of a haze … 02/16/1979. At 20 hours 15 minutes in the northwest on the horizon a bright bluish-white flash appeared, it turned into a rapidly growing circle of blinding light, which then A crimson-smoky ball, the size of a full moon, appeared in the center of the flash, quickly rose upward and melted before reaching the zenith. but orange slices, and gradually faded away, leaving a faintly luminous trail in the sky. Everything lasted 6-10 minutes, then everything faded … Eyewitnesses told about similar phenomena in other years, but they were not noted by me. Objects of a different type flying over the village were clearly rockets, I did not mark them … “

In favor of the rocket version

There are two other messages in favor of the rocket version. One of the same Polunochny from A. Epanechnikov. He said that he found in the upper reaches of the Khozya River, near the place of death of tourists, a metal (duralumin) fragment “obviously of rocket origin.” He even sent a sketch, since he threw this fragment away as unnecessary. The picture shows a piece of duralumin with rows of square grooves. And later it came from the Midnight parcel with almost the same piece of duralumin from those places. Maybe it really is a wreck of a rocket or other aircraft. Find this piece in a heap of scrap metal – no wonder, but in the upper reaches of the Khozya River? When and how he got to these places, whether he has anything to do with the deaths of the guys, is unknown. V. Korotaev, an investigator of the regional prosecutor’s office for especially important cases, who worked then, in 1959, in the Ivdel prosecutor’s office, said that at first, before the arrival of the investigator from Sverdlovsk, he also took part in the investigation. In particular, he interviewed local residents. As a lawyer, he was very surprised by the fast terms of the investigation – March, April, May – while such a case required a more detailed and lengthy investigation. In addition, no one returned to this matter, but it would be necessary, at least, to see these places, and in the summer, perhaps, there would be some traces. A local Mansi resident S. Kurikov, who took part in the search, told Korotaev that soon after the tragedy in those places he found some kind of incomprehensible “piece of iron”, but then with Korotaev they, undertaking a semi-legal expedition by helicopter, could not find it. Thus, the rocket version also has a right to exist and has not been fully developed. Something could well have flown in from Novaya Zemlya, or even from the south of the country, where they were tested. After all, only now we learn that the formation of our strategic missile forces was not so cloudless. Suffice it to recall the circumstances of the death of Marshal Nedelin and many other people during one of the unsuccessful launches. But hoping for the frankness of the military in this case is an empty number. True, we must give them their due – they took an active and selfless part in the search for the dead. I must say that rumors about the involvement of the tests of some new weapon in the deaths of tourists were very persistent. Knowing all the newly discovered circumstances in connection with the declassification of the criminal case, Alexei Koskin made a kind of selection from military magazines, “trying on” various types of weapons for the Ivdel tragedy. The selection turned out to be curious. It is, of course, about foreign samples. But it is clear that military parity is achieved mainly through parallel scientific research. And tests, of course. Volumetric blast ammunition. Sometimes they are called fuel-air, overpressure, vacuum. A volumetric explosion is understood as an explosion of a previously formed cloud of a finely dispersed combustible mixture capable of detonation. If this happens in the dark, then a bright flash is visible, followed by a powerful shock wave. Specialists also refer to the damaging factors of a volumetric explosion as high temperatures, burnout of oxygen in the area of ​​the explosion and the formation of highly toxic combustion products. (Let’s remember the nature of the injuries!) Incendiary weapon. Its principle of action is that an incendiary substance is sprayed at the target and burns up in the air, forming a fireball. These can be shells, grenades and bombs. Temperatures up to 2400 degrees Celsius. (We have already talked about glowing balls). Cruise missiles. In the late 1950s, an air-to-ground cruise missile was developed. But they did not become widespread, since then there were no effective guidance systems. (This means that the missiles could well fly away from where they were headed).

Another interesting point. In V. Gubarev’s book “Space Morning. Korolev and Gagarin.” (“Young Guard”, 1984) such an episode is mentioned in passing. Korolev was asked for data on the study of sodium clouds. These clouds were launched from rockets to study the movement of air masses for their possible effect on the trajectory of the missiles. As it turns out during the conversation, for some reason these works were of a secret nature. The sodium clouds mentioned were also glowing. Korolyov immediately mentioned the report of a meteorological technician who observed an unusual phenomenon (remember – the report of Tokareva, a meteorological technician!) And concluded – no, not that … But, I think, sodium clouds are unlikely to be related to this story – the speed of movement is incomparable …

Twisted pines

There is another interesting version. A resident of Sverdlovsk V. Sergeev writes to the editorial office: “According to rumors and stories of Mansi hunters, in the regions of the Otorten and Chistop mountains there are very strong winds accompanied by fantastic sounds. In the summer of 1966, southeast of the Chistop mountain, I saw a strange picture in the forest: pine trees twisted in several pieces, uprooted and scattered across the forest. The accompanying me explained that recently a strange roar was heard here, similar to the roar of a giant angry bull. And then powerful air vortices appeared, which twisted the trees between themselves, pulled them out of land and lowered them back nearby. Get people into this hearth of the elements … “The version is quite worthy of attention, since it explains the origin of the injuries. Yes, assuming that the tourists received radioactive contamination from Novaya Zemlya, like the whole area. But the trouble is, there were, apparently, no traces of the riot of the elements in this place. And here is something else on this topic, almost from the realm of the mystical. There is such a book – A.K. Matveev, “Peaks of the Stone Belt. Names of the Urals Mountains”. We read on page 129: “Kholat-Syakhyl, a mountain (1079 m) on the watershed ridge between the upper reaches of the Lozva and its tributary Auspiya, 15 km south-south-east of Otorten. Mansiysk Kholat is” dead “, that is, Holat-Syakhyl is a mountain of the dead. Legend has it that nine Mansi once perished on this summit. Sometimes they add that it happened during a global flood. According to another version, during the flood, hot water flooded everything around, except for a place on the top of the mountain, sufficient for a person to lie down. who found refuge here, died. Hence the name of the mountain … The author had to climb Holat-Syakhyl more than once, and he must admit that there is no more severe and gloomy mountain in this part of the Northern Urals … “I must say that a hasty investigation and the secrecy of its results under pressure from the party authorities played a disservice to this whole story. As is usually the case, the lack of information was made up for by a variety of rumors. Unconditional priority among them belonged to the version about testing a new, either neutron, or vacuum, or psychic … unknown and terrible weapon … Well, for example, such a story that has come down to us through third hands (or language?). As you know, the military helped to find the guys. A certain young lieutenant with a group of soldiers camped not far from the last camp of tourists. One night he was awakened by the daylight, and together they watched a white luminous ball approaching them. The closer he got, the more mortal terror gripped their souls. I wanted to jump out and run wherever they looked. But the lieutenant was ambitious and did not want to lose face in the eyes of his soldiers … In the end, the ball lost interest in them and went about his business. In a word, there is no shortage of hypotheses and assumptions, and all this represented a vast field of activity for an inquisitive researcher, but a tragedy happened – nine young, full of strength, courageous people died. I happened to see photos from the guys’ funerals. Struck by some stern determination on the faces of people. Yes, grief is boundless, sorrow, but fists are clenched, eyes are hard. The atmosphere, according to eyewitnesses, was very tense. Rumors circulated around the city, one more terrible than the other. Parents, students demanded an answer – what happened to the guys? There were angry letters to the prosecutor’s office, the regional party committee, to Moscow, to Khrushchev. The troublemakers were appealed to through the party committees of various levels. They say that there were also calls to the KGB. This intensified the passions even more – they are being “otmazyat”, which means that not everything is clean here. That is why it was not allowed to carry the coffins (some of them, as we know, were not allowed to be opened) along the central streets, and they were carried to the Mikhailovskoye cemetery by one side.

S. BOGOMOLOV
The newspaper “Uralsky Rabochiy”, 8, 10, 11, 12 July 1990

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